NR & NAD+ Information

What is NR

"Nicotinamide riboside (NR) has recently become one of the most studied nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) precursors, due to its numerous potential health benefits mediated via elevated NAD+ content in the body. NAD+ is an essential coenzyme that plays important roles in various metabolic pathways and increasing its overall content has been confirmed as a valuable strategy for treating a wide variety of pathophysiological conditions."[1]

What is NAD+

"Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) is a coenzyme for redox reactions, making it central to energy metabolism. NAD+ is also an essential cofactor for non-redox NAD+-dependent enzymes, including sirtuins, CD38 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases. NAD+ can directly and indirectly influence many key cellular functions, including metabolic pathways, DNA repair, chromatin remodelling, cellular senescence and immune cell function. These cellular processes and functions are critical for maintaining tissue and metabolic homeostasis and for healthy ageing."[2]

NAD+ levels in the body go down with age.

"Remarkably, ageing is accompanied by a gradual decline in tissue and cellular NAD+ levels in multiple model organisms, including rodents and humans. This decline in NAD+ levels is linked causally to numerous ageing-associated diseases, including cognitive decline, cancer, metabolic disease, sarcopenia and frailty."[2]

NAD's role in DNA repair & the results of persistent DNA damage

Parp 1 is critical for the detection and repair of DNA damage. Parp 1 needs NAD+.

"Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) is critical for the detection and repair of strand breaks. Persistent activation of PARP1 depletes cellular reserves of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+), a critical co-factor for many enzymes including sirtuins, which are a family of protein deacetylases and ADP-ribosyltransferases that broadly regulate gene expression and protein stability.''[4]

"Persistent DNA damage (genotoxic stress) triggers signaling cascades that drive cells into apoptosis or senescence to avoid replicating a damaged genome. The drawback is that these cancer avoidance mechanisms promote aging.''[4]

NAD+ role in immune function [5] [6]


What are efficacious doses of NR?


Based on this human, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel study, 1 gram seems like an efficacious dose.[3]

 "At day 14, the blood NAD+ levels of the 100 mg, 300 mg and 1000 mg participants were increased by 22 ± 9%, 51 ± 7% and 142 ± 14% with respect to their baseline blood NAD+ levels. At day 56, the blood NAD+ levels of the same 100 mg, 300 mg and 1000 mg participants were sustained at increases of 10% ± 4%, 48 ± 8% and 139 ± 19% with respect to their baseline blood NAD+ levels."[3]


What time of day to take NR

It is preferable to take NMN in the morning or early afternoon as many people report an energy boost, and some people have reported sleep issues if taking NMN in the evening.

What method of intake is ideal for NR

All the studies that I have read have been on oral administration, but some people opt to empty the capsule under their tongues(sublingual). Sublingual seems to be acceptable as much of the NMN will be digested anyway.